新东方GRE核心词汇考法精析 List31:Unit6
日期:2016-06-05 18:42


scruple .
【考法 1】 n. (良心上的)不安: an uneasy feeling about the rightness of what one is doing or going to do
【例】 The survey showed that many students had few scruples about cheating on papers or exams. 调查显示很多学生对于在考试时作弊没有丝毫的愧疚。
【近】 compunction, misgiving
【反】 assurance, certainty, certitude, confidence, conviction, sureness 确信
sectarianism .
【考法 1】 n. 宗派主义,顽固: stubborn or intolerant adherence to one's opinions or prejudices
【例】 An ideological sectarianism prevented the political party from ever being anything more than a fringe group. 意识形态上的顽固和保守使得这个政党只能成为一个边缘团体。
【近】 dogmatism, illiberalism, intolerance, narrow-mindedness, partisanship, small-mindedness
【反】 broad-mindedness, liberalism, open-mindedness, tolerance 开明
secular .
【考法 1】 adj. 世俗的,尘世的: of or relating to the worldly or temporal
【例】 That's an issue for the secular authorities, not the church. 这个问题和宗教无关,是一个世俗事务。
【近】 carnal, earthborn, earthbound, fleshly, material, mundane, sublunary, temporal, terrene, terrestrial, worldly
【反】 heavenly, unearthly, unworldly 非尘世间的;spiritual 精神上的;religious 宗教的
sparing .
【考法 1】 adj. 节俭的,节约的: marked by or practicing careful restraint (as in the use of resources)
【例】 The sparing couple are trying to save up enough for a house. 节俭的夫妻希望能够攒钱买套房。
【近】 economical, economizing, provident, scrimping, thrifty
【反】 prodigal, profligate, spendthrift, squandering, wasteful 浪费的
【考法 2】 adj. 不足的,缺乏的: less plentiful than what is normal, necessary, or desirable
【例】 Unfortunately, the explanation of the health insurance plan was somewhat sparing on details. 不幸的是,健康保险上的说明似乎不够详细。‖The map is sparing of information. 这张地图的信息量太少了。
【近】 exiguous, niggardly, poor, scant, scanty, scarce, skimp, skimpy, slender, slim, spare, sparse, stingy
【反】 abundant, ample, bountiful, copious, generous, liberal, plenteous, plentiful 足量的
stereotype .
【考法 1】 n. 成见,老套的理念: a conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image
【例】 The noble savage was a stereotype that appealed to 18th-century intellectuals, who viewed European civilization as decadent and corrupt. "高贵的野蛮人"这一概念是为了迎合十八世纪的文人而提出的,他们将欧洲视作一支正在堕落和腐化的文明。
【近】 concept, conception, generality, notion
substitute .
【考法 1】 n. 取代者,替代品: a person or thing that takes the place or function of another
【例】 If you like, you can use nuts as a substitute for coconut in that recipe. 如果您不反对,我们可以将菜单里的椰子换成坚果。
【近】 backup, cover, fill-in, relief, replacement, reserve, stand-in, surrogate
【考法 2】 vt. 取代,替代: to take the place of
【例】 substituting moral power for physical force 将暴力用道德的力量代替‖BFR molecules have some atoms substituted by bromide atoms, which makes it fire-resistant. 在溴化阻燃剂的分子中,一部分原子被溴原子取代,从而使它不易燃烧。
【近】 displace, relieve, replace, supersede, supplant, cut out
【派】 substitution n. 取代
succumb .
【考法 1】 vi. 屈服: to yield to superior strength or force or overpowering appeal or desire
【例】 refused to succumb to her fears and defiantly walked through the dark cemetery 拒绝向自己的恐惧屈服,而是倔强地走过了幽暗的墓地
【近】 bow, capitulate, concede, submit, surrender, give in
【反】 resist 抵抗
【考法 2】 vi. 死亡: to be brought to an end (as death) by the effect of destructive or disruptive forces
【例】 The patient lay so still and pale that everyone thought he had succumbed, and then he opened his eyes. 面色惨白的病人静静地躺在床上,正当所有人都怀疑他已经过逝时,他突然睁开了眼睛。‖The doctor worked tirelessly until finally he, too, succumbed to the plague. 医生不知劳累地工作,直至最后,他也死于瘟疫。
【近】 decease, demise, expire, perish, pass away
【反】 endure, stand 忍受住;breathe, live, survive 存活
supersede .
【考法 1】 vt. 取代,替代: to displace in favor of another
【例】 That edition of the dictionary that you have has been superseded by a more recent one. 你买的那一版的字典已经被最近新出的版本取代了。
【近】 displace, relieve, replace, substitute, supplant, cut out
surly .
【考法 1】 adj. 脾气不好的: irritably sullen and churlish in mood or manner
【例】 The surly receptionist told us we would have to wait outside in the rain. 态度粗暴的服务员说我们必须在外面等--哪怕是在下雨。
【近】 acid, bearish, bilious, cantankerous, disagreeable, dyspeptic, ill-humored, ill-natured, ornery, splenetic
【反】 amiable, good-humored, good-natured, good-tempered 性格好的
surmise .
【考法 1】 n. (根据不足的)推测,揣测: a thought or idea based on scanty evidence
【例】 My surmise is that the couple's "good news" is the announcement that they are going to have a baby. 我猜那对夫妻说的"好消息"就是他们要有小孩了。
【近】 guess, hypothesis, shot, supposition, theory
【反】 fact 事实
【考法 2】 vt. 推测: to form a notion of from scanty evidence
【例】 From his tone I surmised that he was unhappy. 从他的语气中我猜测他并不高兴。
【近】 assume, conjecture, daresay, imagine, infer, presume, speculate, suppose, suspect
【反】 demonstrate, prove, substantiate, validate 证明